Of these, a certain number are obligatory and common to all study programmes, while the rest are in subjects chosen by students.
Courses, each of which is followed by an exam, can be pursued in any order and, if you fail an exam, you’re permitted to retake it any number of times. Attendance at lectures is mostly voluntary, leaving students free to pursue their studies at home if they prefer, although some professors insist on attendance at lectures. The regular submission of essays throughout a course isn’t generally required, although students must write a thesis (usually of between 50,000 and 60,000 words) at the end of their course in order to earn their degree.
The structure of the Italian university system allows students to take a longer time to complete their degrees than is usual in the UK and the US. The number of years necessary to complete a degree ( corso di laurea) at an Italian university is laid down by law. Most degree courses are for a minimum of four years but some (e.g. medicine and architecture) are for six. However, few students manage to complete their degrees in the minimum period and it’s usual for students to take seven or eight years, with the result that many are in their mid to late 20s by the time they graduate.
The traditional qualifications awarded at Italian universities are a university degree ( diploma di laurea), a specialised diploma (diploma di specializzazione) and a research doctorate ( dottorato di ricerca).
Universities have recently introduced a university diploma (diploma universitario) or short degree course lasting two or three years. These are currently in specialised fields of engineering, physical education, auxiliary medicine (e.g. nursing and physiotherapy) and languages, with admission for the limited number of places available by competitive examination. Foreign students who wish to accumulate credits at an Italian university without completing a degree course may apply to do individual subject courses ( corsi singoli).
Student accommodation isn’t usually provided by Italian universities, although some subsidised student housing (casa dello studente) may be available through the DSU. The majority of students make their own arrangements and there’s usually a university notice board where rooms and apartments are advertised for rent.
Students should expect to pay anything between €200 (central and southern regions) and €280 (Rome and northern cities) per month for a room in a shared apartment. In addition to rent, students must usually pay utility bills plus maintenance for items such as cookers, refrigerators and washing machines.
Italian universities offer little in the way of extra-curricular sports and social activities (there’s no ‘campus’ feel as in American universities), although most have a refectory ( mensa) where inexpensive, wholesome food is available.
American Universities in Italy
In addition to Italian institutions of higher education, there are a number of American colleges and universities in Italy offering an American degree programme, e.g. Johns Hopkins University in Bologna (www.jhu.edu) and John Cabot University in Rome (www.johncabot.edu). John Cabot University offers four-year BA degrees on a rolling admission basis in art history, business administration, English literature, international affairs and political science, as well as associate degrees and credit transfers on a semester basis for students wishing to do part of their study in Italy. Fees are around €10,500 per year, but there are various financial aid and scholarship packages available.
Students come from around 40 countries and universities offer many extra-curricular activities. A list of American institutions of higher education in Italy and information about American study programmes at Italian institutions can be obtained from the American embassy in Italy and from the cultural sections of Italian embassies abroad.
The Erasmus Programme
EU nationals who wish to complete part of their studies at an Italian university may be interested in the Erasmus programme, part of the EU Socrates programme funded by the European Commission. Under this programme, students don’t pay fees for attending an Italian university (although you may need to continue to pay fees at your own university) and grants are available to cover the costs of moving, language training and a higher cost of living (if applicable).
For further information, contact the Erasmus Bureau, Rue Montoyer 70, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium (Tel. +32-2-233 011), your country’s national Erasmus agency or your university’s Erasmus representative. The Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs also allocates a number of scholarships to foreign students attending courses at Italian universities. Information is available from Italian embassies abroad.
For further information about universities in Italy, contact the Dipartimento per l’Autonomia Universitaria e gli Studenti, Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica, Piazzale J. F. Kennedy, 20, 00144 Rome (Tel. 06 59911). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs provides information about applying to universities on its website (www.esteri.it). The publication, Higher Education in Italy: A Guide for Foreigners, contains comprehensive information about all aspects of higher education and is available free from MURST at the above address (Tel. 06-5991 2319). Requests must be made in writing, by post or fax. DSU offices provide free guides to student services and some universities have an office that provides advice to foreign students.
This article is an extract from Living and Working in Italy from Survival Books.