The decentralised health care system in Peru has numerous health service and insurance providers, creating overlaps in terms of functions and poor coordination between them. The five health care institutions that dominate the sector are the Ministry of Health (MINSA), EsSalud, the Armed Forces (FFAA), the National Police (PNP) and the private sector.
Health care in Peru tends to be deficient and unevenly distributed between urban and rural areas, due to its specific geographical landscape. Lima has the highest density of health workers, whilst the lowest is in the regions of Piura, Loreto and Lambayeque.
Recently however, this inequality has started to change, due to a decentralised retention plan that aims to engage health workers in rural areas and allocate them evenly around the country.